/Cs6 60 0 R The decline in agricultural production played a central role in the damaging land reform of the early 2000s, due to agriculture’s large share contribution to Zimbabwe’s GDP and employment. The official reversal of “land-reform” in that country is a source of deep personal and professional satisfaction. [23] Land ownership in these regions was determined by race under the terms of the Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act, passed in 1930, which reserved Regions I, II, and III for white settlement. [14] Rhodes hoped to discover gold and establish a mining colony, but the original intention had to be modified as neither the costs nor the returns on the overhead capital matched the original projections. 34 0 obj [14] Although the Ndebele elite were uninterested in cultivation, land ownership was considered one major source of an individual's wealth and power—the others being cattle and slaves. 0 444 278 722 500 500 0 0 389 389 278 500 0 667 ] JOHANNESBURG, 3 October (IRIN) - Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme has ignored the critical role played by the commercial farming sector in the economy, analysts and farmers have warned. endobj 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 444 500 444 278 0 0 278 >> The second president Robert Mugabe established land reform policies blocked economic development as well. endobj /StemV 82 /FontDescriptor 68 0 R << endobj Several million black farm workers were excluded from the redistribution, leaving them without employment. 500 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 0 0 389 500 778 0 944 722 778 611 0 722 << Region II was highveld, also in the east, where the land could be used intensively for grain cultivation such as maize, tobacco, and wheat. THE Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (Esap), of the early 1990s, often cited by the government as part of the cause for Zimbabwe's economic problems today, had a positive … Whereas Zimbabwe was the world's sixth-largest producer of tobacco in 2001,[67] in 2005 it produced less than a third the amount produced in 2000. [16] At independence from the United Kingdom in 1980, the Zimbabwean authorities were empowered to initiate the necessary reforms; as long as land was bought and sold on a willing basis, the British government would finance half the cost. /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> /FontName /ArialMT endobj /Flags 32 The newly resettled peasants had largely failed to secure loans from commercial banks because they did not have title over the land on which they were resettled, and thus could not use it as collateral. /FontFamily (Arial) /FontBBox [ -547 -307 1401 1032 ] endobj In fact, many developing countries in Africa are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities. >> /Type /FontDescriptor 18 0 obj /Title (Microsoft Word - 4 SEP1415) /TT4 67 0 R /Ascent 891 /GS1 61 0 R >> Land reform in Korea has been found to have increased agricultural production by enhancing economic incentives (Jeon and Kim 2000). 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 [5][6] There has been a significant[clarification needed] drop in total farm output which has led to instances of starvation and famine. The second president Robert Mugabe established land reform policies blocked economic development as well. >> [53] The case (Campbell v Republic of Zimbabwe) was heard by the SADC Tribunal in 2008, which held that the Zimbabwean government violated the SADC treaty by denying access to the courts and engaging in racial discrimination against white farmers whose lands had been confiscated and that compensation should be paid. >> [34] Instead of being resettled by landless peasants, several hundred commercial farms acquired under the Land Acquisition Act continued to be leased out by politically connected individuals. [32] Prime Minister Mugabe, who assumed an executive presidency in 1987, had urged restraint by enforcing a leadership code of conduct which barred members of the ruling party, ZANU-PF, from monopolising large tracts of farmland and then renting them out for profit. /Ascent 905 >> /ExtGState << Kadenge Published by SAPES Books, 2000 ISBN1-77905-099-2. [2] The United Nations has identified several key shortcomings with the contemporary programme, namely failure to compensate ousted landowners as called for by the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the poor handling of boundary disputes, and chronic shortages of material and personnel needed to carry out resettlement in an orderly manner. >> Despite the claims by critics of the land reform only benefiting government bureaucrats, only 4.8% of the land went to business people, and 3.7% went to security services. >> Benefits and costs of land reform in Zimbabwe with implications for Southern Africa, Klaus Deininger, Hans Hoogeveen and Bill Kinsey Africa South Africa: The unknown impact of land reform. Land reform in Korea is /TT8 71 0 R /LastChar 150 [���K��_X�c3[n�. 24 0 obj endobj /Count 9 /FontDescriptor 70 0 R << [35], On 5 November 1997, Chalker's successor, Clare Short, described the new Labour government's approach to Zimbabwean land reform. << 26 0 obj World media demonised Zimbabwe and the fast-track land reforms which were initiated in 1999. The government also mentioned that black farmers who received land under the controversial land reform program would be moved to allow the former owners "to regain possession". [22], The Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act reserved 49 million acres for white ownership and left 17.7 million acres of land unassigned to either the white preserve or the TTLs. [79], Critics of the land reforms have contended that they have had a serious detrimental effect on the Zimbabwean economy. endobj It has been criticised for the violence and intimidation which marred several expropriations, as well as the parallel collapse of domestic banks which held billions of dollars' worth of bonds on liquidated properties. It empowered the government to claim tracts adjacent to the former TTLs (now known simply as "Communal Areas") and mark them for resettlement purposes, provided the owners could be persuaded to sell. endobj [29] Another £100 million was granted for "budgetary support" and was spent on a variety of projects, including land reform. Palmer, R. 1996. endobj endobj Around 40% of Zimbabwean households are hungry. Most coverage of Zimbabwe’s land reform insists that agricultural production has almost totally collapsed, that food insecurity is rife, that rural economies are in precipitous decline and that farm labour has all been displaced. /TT2 65 0 R /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 500 500 500 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 << SUMMARY. /Descent -216 null /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /TT4 67 0 R /Ascent 891 /Type /ExtGState [18] In 1889 Cecil Rhodes and the British South Africa Company (BSAC) introduced the earliest white settlers to Zimbabwe as prospectors, seeking concessions from the Ndebele for mineral rights. This was not seen as a suitable outcome for the government, so the proposals were amended to replace those clauses with one to compulsorily acquire land for redistribution without compensation. [27] To secure Mugabe and Nkomo's support for the constitutional agreement, Lord Carrington announced that the United Kingdom would be prepared to assist land resettlement with technical assistance and financial aid. Later, Zimbabwe began its severe hyperinflation in 2004 and the entire economy declined. /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Widths [ 278 ] /FontWeight 700 In June 1998, the Zimbabwe government published its "policy framework" on the Land Reform and Resettlement Programme Phase II (LRRP II), which envisaged the compulsory purchase over five years of 50,000 square kilometres from the 112,000 square kilometres owned by white commercial farmers, public corporations, churches, non-governmental organisations and multinational companies. /Font << /ColorSpace << [16] In the late 1990s, Prime Minister Tony Blair terminated this arrangement when funds available from Margaret Thatcher's administration were exhausted, repudiating all commitments to land reform. ", "Minister Says Zimbabwe Plans to Nationalize Land", "Zimbabwe's Land Reform: A summary of findings", "Harare may force banks to fund black farmers", "Zim government to evict illegal farm settlers", "Corruption, double allocations spoil land reform: Zanu-PF", "Institute of Development Studies: Zimbabwe's land reform ten years on: new study dispels the myths", "Myths, Reality and The Inconvenient Truth about Zimbabwe's Land Resettlement Programme", "Robert Mugabe's land reform comes under fresh scrutiny", "Zimbabwe to return land seized from foreign farmers", "afrol News – Tiny tobacco crop spells doom in Zimbabwe", "From breadbasket to basket case: Faced with famine, Robert Mugabe orders farmers to stop growing food", "Land reform is a Zimbabwe success story – it will be the basis for economic recovery under Mnangagwa", "Mugabe Makes Zimbabwe's Tobacco Farmers Land Grab Winners", "Mugabe's Seized Farms Boost Profits at British American Tobacco", "Contract farming: Future for agriculture", "In Zimbabwe Land Takeover, a Golden Lining", "Zimbabwe farmers produce record tobacco crop", "Zimbabwe Why Is One of the World's Least-Free Economies Growing So Fast? /TT2 65 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding null Negative effects on incumbent land-owners – While the effects of reform are very likely to be positive on balance, we should recognise some compensating harms to some existing landowners. The opposition mostly boycotted the drafting stage of the constitution claiming that this new version was to entrench Mugabe politically. In 2000, however, a Fast-Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was initiated, resulting in the resettlement of most commercial land. >> [74][75] Production revived as the small-scale black farmers gained experience in growing tobacco. /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /TT10 63 0 R [2] The programme also left another 200,000 farmworkers displaced and homeless, with just under 5% receiving compensation in the form of land expropriated from their ousted employers. Landowners were given thirty days to submit written objections. /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT 42 0 obj /FontWeight 400 More commonly, violence was directed against farmworkers, who were often assaulted and killed by the war veterans and their supporters. [1], The government's land distribution is perhaps the most crucial and most bitterly contested political issue surrounding Zimbabwe. /TT10 63 0 R Both the commercial farms and the subsistence sector maintained large cattle herds, but over 60% of domestic beef was furnished by the former. [19] Local gold deposits failed to yield the massive returns which the BSAC had promised its investors, and the military costs of the expedition had caused a deficit. >> /TT6 69 0 R /S /D The land issue almost derailed the negotiations with Britain that led to the birth of Zimbabwe in 1980. 41 0 obj In the sixteenth century, Portuguese explorers had attempted to open up Zimbabwe for trading purposes, but the country was not permanently settled by European immigrants until three hundred years later. African homestead in Rhodesia. >> [35] President Mugabe responded by indicating that in his opinion land reform was a strictly political issue, not one to be questioned or debated by the judiciary. The effect of Zimbabwe's failed land reform programme is clear. There is however much overlap between the two categories. 65 0 obj /CapHeight 1000 [25], In 1977, the Land Tenure Act was amended by the Rhodesian parliament, which further reduced the amount of land reserved for white ownership to 200,000 hectares, or 500,000 acres. /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT Land reform is a system whereby statutory division of agricultural land and its reallocation to landless people takes place. << >> /Kids [ 47 0 R 1 0 R 4 0 R 7 0 R 10 0 R 13 0 R 16 0 R 19 0 R 22 0 R ] Land reform in Korea has been found to have increased agricultural production by enhancing economic incentives (Jeon and Kim 2000). 45 0 obj [32] In 1994, a disproportionate amount of the land being acquired was held by fewer than 600 black landowners, many of whom owned multiple properties. /ColorSpace << In 2020, there are many more than 1000 white farmers tilling the soil, and this number is rising. /Type /FontDescriptor /TT2 65 0 R >> 32 0 obj According to the United Nation's children's agency, UNICEF, around 3 million Zimbabweans need regularly food aid. >> land was payable, there was no requirement that it should be "fair" or "adequate" or represent the market value of the land.7 • Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. International tobacco companies contracted with small-scale subsistence farmers to buy their crop. Hawkins argues that the analysis by Hanlon “ignores the spillover effects of land resettlement elsewhere in the economy.” “The fact is that – regardless of how many people found poorly-paid jobs in agriculture – land reform sparked a 40 percent decline in Zimbabwe’s GDP,” Hawkins states. This declaration was also a clear and very public admittance that land reform had failed. A total of 10,816,886 hectares had been acquired since 2000, compared to the 3,498,444 purchased from voluntary sellers between 1980 and 1998. 17) Act, 2005 - Effectively vested ownership of agricultural land, compulsorily acquired for resettlement purposed in the land reform programme, in the state. [8], As of 2011, 237,858 Zimbabwean households had been provided with access to land under the programme. /XHeight 1000 [17] This reflected a larger trend of permanent European settlement in the milder, drier regions of Southern Africa as opposed to the tropical and sub-tropical climates further north. [16] White farmers were not to be placed under any pressure or intimidation, and if they decided to sell their farms they were allowed to determine their own asking prices. /SA false >> endobj 9 0 obj [33] Parliament passed the Land Acquisition Act in 1985, which gave the government first right to purchase excess land for redistribution to the landless. [35] Of the 1,471 individual property acquisitions, about 1,200 were appealed to the courts by the farmowners due to various legal irregularities. [7] Export crops have suffered tremendously in this period. [63] Critics continue to maintain that the primary beneficiaries are Mugabe loyalists. ��� �4U@ ���?Hs1Xd�ffrl�r`^b��־�k΂�`)� �4#w�,��� � +)� Population growth frequently resulted in the over-utilisation of the existing land, which became greatly diminished both in terms of cultivation and grazing due to the larger number of people attempting to share the same acreage. Mining and agriculture are the key economic activities in Zimbabwe. >> /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldItalicMT /Flags 34 Notice the rapid accelleration of the decline of the Zimbabwe Dollar on this chart, in the year 2002, the year ZDERA of 2001 came into effect. [35], In 1997 the government published a list of 1,471 farms it intended to buy compulsorily for redistribution. During the first and second phases of the land reform programme government pursued a narrowly defined land reform programme which focused solely on the In his Ph.D. thesis Traditions of Domesticity in ‘’Modern” Zimbabwe Politics; Race Gender and Class in the Government of Commercial Farm Workers in Hurunawe District. /TT12 40 0 R /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 [2] However, the predominantly white commercial sector also provided a livelihood for over 30% of the paid workforce and accounted for some 40% of exports. endobj As erosion increased, the ability of the subsistence sector to feed its adherents diminished greatly. [19] While a survey undertaken by the colony's Land Commission in concert with the British government in 1925 found that the vast majority of black Rhodesians supported some form of geographic segregation, including the reservation of land exclusively for their use, many were disillusioned by the manner in which the legislation was implemented in explicit favour of whites. /Producer (Acrobat Distiller 9.0.0 \(Windows\)) [16] The British government continued to help fund the resettlement programme, with aid specifically earmarked for land reform reaching £91 million by 1996. Farmland deeds would be replaced with 99-year leases, while leases for wildlife conservancies would be limited to 25 years. Zimbabwe is not the only country that has recently had to deal with urban land reform. /ColorSpace << [22] To control the rate of erosion, colonial authorities introduced voluntary destocking initiatives for livestock. << 0 500 500 444 500 444 333 500 556 278 0 500 278 778 556 500 500 500 389 389 278 556 Zimbabwe’s land reform has had a bad press. [25] The murder of about three hundred white farmers during the war, as well as the conscription of hundreds of others into the Rhodesian Security Forces, also led to a drop in the volume of agricultural production. Effects of Structural Adjustment in Southern Africa By J.T. /ExtGState << [26] This was enshrined in Section 16 of the Zimbabwean Constitution, 1980. /XHeight 1000 /Filter /FlateDecode [22] Two years later, as part of the Internal Settlement, Zimbabwe Rhodesia's incoming biracial government under Bishop Abel Muzorewa abolished the reservation of land according to race. The discussion below outlines the effects of dollarisation on the Zimbabwean economy, namely the reduction of the competitiveness of local products in the international market on the negative side, and the reduction of capital flight and improved savings ability on the positive side. /ColorSpace << 60 0 obj Zimbabwe responded by embarking on a "fast track" redistribution campaign, forcibly confiscating white farms without compensation. << The land reform programme can achieve its desired social, economic and political objectives if the redistribution exercise is planned properly. 72 0 obj /ExtGState << /Descent -211 [60] The study reported that of around 7 million hectares of land redistributed via the land reform (or 20% of Zimbabwe's area), 49.9% of those who received land were rural peasants, 18.3% were "unemployed or in low-paid jobs in regional towns, growth points and mines," 16.5% were civil servants, and 6.7% were of the Zimbabwean working class. Mining and agriculture are the key economic activities in Zimbabwe. /StemV 138 [23] A campaign of systematic villagisation followed as the Rhodesian Army shifted segments of the black population into guarded settlements to prevent their subversion by the insurgents. /Type /FontDescriptor Since 1997 shifts in Zimbabwe’s land reform, agricultural and economic policies, and its relations with the international community, including external financial institutions, have accompanied dramatic economic decline. /FirstChar 32 endobj /XHeight 1000 Another 4,500 landless peasants were allocated three. Mike Campbell (Private) Limited v. The Minister of National Security Responsible for Land, Land Reform and Resettlement, Supreme Court of Zimbabwe, 22 January 2008, Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Redevelopment, Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association, Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001, "Fast Track Land Reform in Zimbabwe | Human Rights Watch", "Zimbabwe won't return land to white farmers: Mnangagwa", "The bitter poverty of child sugarcane workers in Zimbabwe", "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2013", "Mugabe's land reform costs Zimbabwe $17 billion: economists", "White Zim farmers accept R238m interim payment for land compensation", "Zimbabwe agrees to pay $3.5 billion compensation to white farmers", "Zimbabwe Signs U.S.$3.5 Billion Deal to Compensate White Farmers", "Single women, land, and livelihood vulnerability in a communal area in Zimbabwe", "From Open Season to Royal Game: The Strategic Repositioning of Commercial Farmers Across The Independence Transition in Zimbabwe", "Africa | US backed Zimbabwe land reform", "Online NewsHour – Land Redistribution in Southern Africa: Zimbabwe Program", "Radical Realignments: The Collapse of the Alliance between White Farmers and the State in Zimbabwe", "Africa | Why Mugabe is deaf to the West", "Bippas won't stop assets seizure: Chinamasa", "Country Reports: Zimbabwe at the Crossroads", "Zimbabwes land reform: challenging the myths", "Evicted farmer sues for return of £2m assets", "Of securocrats, candles and a raging dictatorship", "The end of an era for Zimbabwe's last white farmers? 556 667 0 722 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 >> /FirstChar 32 [20], Between 1890 and 1896, the BSAC granted an area encompassing 16 million acres—about one sixth the area of Southern Rhodesia—to European immigrants. 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